India is a country where more than 60 percent people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. But agriculture depends on the availability of water. The more the land has irrigation facilities, the more is the agricultural productivity, which, in turn, contributes towards the welfare of farmers and all others engaged in farming activities.
The Government of India on 27.07.2016 approved funding of the 99 prioritized irrigation projects (and 7 phases) with an estimated balance cost of Rs. 77,595 Crore (Central share- Rs. 31,342 crores; State share- Rs. 46,253 crores) for completion in phases. The works include both the AIBP and CAD works. Funding arrangement for both Central Assistance (CA) and State Share made through NABARD under Long Term Irrigation Fund (LTIF). Targeted Irrigation Potential to be created under the scheme is 34.63 Lakh ha. An expenditure of Rs.56271 crore (upto March 2022) has been reported to be incurred by the concerned State Governments on these projects since 2016-17. In January 2020, the Ministry of Finance conveyed the continuation of the ongoing centrally sponsored scheme up-to 31.03.2021.
Physical Progress: Against the target of 34.63 Lakh Ha. Irrigation Potential of about 24.35 Lakh ha. has been created through AIBP works of the prioritized projects during 2016-17 to 2021-22. The potential created during 2022-23 shall be available only after the end of cropping season.
Project Completed under PMKSY-AIBP: AIBP works of 50 prioritized projects out of identified 99 projects (and 7 phases) were reported to be completed till date. Out of this, 4 projects have been reported to be completed during 2022-23 till date.
Implementation of PMKSY AIBP (including CADWM) during 2021-26: The Government of India has approved implementation of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) for 2021-26 with an outlay of ₹93,068 Crore on date 15-Dec-2021 to benefit about 22 Lakh farmers. The Union Cabinet has approved central support of ₹37,454 Crore to States and ₹20,434.56 Crore of debt servicing for loan availed by Government of India for irrigation development during PMKSY 2016-21. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme, HarKhet KoPaani and Watershed Development components have been approved for continuation during 2021-26. Total additional irrigation potential creation targeted during 2021-26 under AIBP is 13.88 Lakh hectare. Apart from focused completion of 60 ongoing projects including their 30.23 lakh hectare command area development, 6 additional projects have been taken up till date. Also, two national projects, namely Renukaji Dam Project (Himachal Pradesh) and Lakhwar Multipurpose Project (Uttarakhand) have also been included for central funding of 90% of works of water component under the scheme.
A slew of Innovative measures and modification have been made to improve implementation and maximize benefits, such as:
– Inclusion of new Major / Medium Irrigation (MMI) projects as well as funding of National Projects under AIBP.
– Financial progress requirement is dropped for inclusion of a project under AIBP and only physical progress of 50% to be considered.
– Advanced stage (50% physical progress) criteria is relaxed for projects having command area of 50% or more in Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), tribal, Desert Development Programme (DDP), flood prone, Tribal area, Flood prone area, left wing extremism affected area, Koraput, Balangir and Kalahandi (KBK) region of Odisha, Vidarbha & Marathwada regions of Maharashtra and Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh, as also for Extension Renovation Modernization (ERM) projects and also for States with net irrigation below national average.
– Reimbursement is allowed for due central assistance in subsequent years also.
– Project completion permitted with physical progress of 90% or more.
– Online Management Information System (MIS) has been developed for monitoring of the projects. A nodal officer for each of the 99 priority projects has been identified who updates the physical and financial progress of the project regularly in the MIS.
– GIS based Application has been developed for geo-tagging of project components. Remote Sensing Techniques have been used for digitization of the canal network of the projects. Further, the Cropped Area estimation in the command of 99 priority projects is being carried out annually through remote sensing.
– To resolve the issue of Land Acquisition (LA) and increase water conveyance efficiency, use of Underground Pipeline (UGPL) has been actively promoted. Guidelines for Planning and Design of Piped Irrigation Network were released by this Ministry in July’2017.
– Pari-passu implementation of Command area development works in the commands of these projects is envisaged to ensure that the Irrigation Potential Created could be utilized by the farmers. New Guidelines bringing focus on Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) have been brought out. Further, transfer of control and management of the irrigation system to the Water Users’ Association (WUA) has been made a necessary condition for the acceptance of CADWM completion.
– Special Package for Maharashtra: A Special Package approved on 18.07.2018 which provides Central Assistance to complete 83 Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI) projects and 8 Major / Medium Irrigation Projects in drought prone districts in Vidarbha and Marathwada and rest of Maharashtra in phases up to 2023-24. The overall balance cost of the said projects as on 1.4.2018 is estimated to be Rs.13651.61 Crore. Total CA is estimated to be Rs. 3831.41 Crore including reimbursement for expenditure during 2017-18. Balance potential of 3.77 Lakh Ha would be created on completion of these schemes. CA of Rs. 1935 crores have been released under the scheme so far. Under the scheme, 28 SMI projects have been reported to be completed by the State Government of Maharashtra. Ultimate Irrigation Potential of these 28 projects is 20437 ha. Overall irrigation potential of 128205 ha. has been reported to be created through all these projects during 2018-19 to 2021-22. Further potential created during 2022-23 shall be available only after the end of cropping season.
– Polavaram Irrigation Project: Polavaram Irrigation Project was declared as a National Project under Section 90 of AP Reorganization Act, 2014, which came into force on 1st March 2014. The project with 2454 m of earth-cum-rockfill dam and 1128.4 m long spillway aims at irrigating 2.91 Lakh ha in East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, West Godavari and Krishna districts besides several other benefits envisaged by it. The Central Government is funding 100% of the remaining cost of the irrigation component of the project, as on 01.04.2014. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is executing the irrigation component of the project on behalf of the Government of India. The approved cost of the Project as per Revised Cost Committee (RCC) Report is Rs. 47725.74 Cr (at 2017-18 price level). After declaration as National Project, a sum of Rs. 13226.043crore has been released for execution of Polavaram Irrigation Project so far. As reported by the Water Resource Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, an expenditure of Rs 20744.23 crore has been incurred on the project works up to 15.12.2022.
– CWPRS has been involved in conducting physical, mathematical and desk studies on various components of Polavaram Irrigation Project. Studies were carried out on a 2-D physical model (1:50 scale) of spillway for finalizing the layout of spillway and stilling basin by testing spillway profiles for pressures and stilling basin for efficient energy dissipation. On a 3-D comprehensive physical model (1:140 scale) of spillway and power intake, studies were carried out to optimize the design layouts of approach channel, guide bund and spill channel. These studies would improve the flow conditions in-front of spillway and downstream of spillway and in spill channel and its further downstream. Mathematical model studies for river behavior and scour estimation and protection measures related to construction of diaphragm wall were carried out. Mathematical model studies were carried out for assessing the flow conditions in the spill channel. Other studies include the spillway concrete cooling studies, 3D Pseudo- dynamic and 2-D dynamic stress analysis of one spillway block and instrumentation of Polavaram concrete gravity dam.